Timing of Initiation of First-line Antiretroviral Therapy

  • Authors: Marshall J. Glesby, MD, PhD; Timothy J. Wilkin, MD, MPH (More Info)
  • Section Editor: Joel E. Gallant, MD, MPH
  • Editors in Chief: Daniel R. Kuritzkes, MD; Joseph J. Eron, Jr., MD
  • Last Reviewed: 4/1/16 (What's New)


  • ART in HIV-infected pregnant women dramatically reduces the risk of HIV transmission to their infants
  • Treatment guidelines recommend use of ART in pregnant women regardless of CD4+ cell count to achieve undetectable plasma HIV-1 RNA levels (Management Guidelines)[DHHS Perinatal]
  • There is mounting evidence that ART substantially reduces the risk of HIV transmission through breastfeeding[Thomas 2011; Chasela 2010]

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