- Advent of effective ART, known as HAART, strengthened the case for earlier treatment initiation throughout the late 1990s
- Problematic toxicity, adherence, and risk of drug resistance tempered this enthusiasm
- Current options for first-line ART are simpler, more effective, and less toxic than earlier therapies
- Harmful effects of uncontrolled HIV replication and its association with key non–AIDS-defining conditions is well evidenced
- These observations, key epidemiologic studies, and the potential prevention benefit have prompted several treatment guidelines to recommend ART initiation for all patients, including those with CD4+ cell counts > 500 cells/mm3 (Management Guidelines) (Management Guidelines) (Management Guidelines) (Management Guidelines) (Table 1, Table 2)[...