Optimizing Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy

  • Author: Nancy Reynolds, PhD, RN, C-NP, FAAN (More Info)
  • Editors in Chief: Daniel R. Kuritzkes, MD; Joseph J. Eron, Jr., MD
  • Last Reviewed: 3/21/18 (What's New)


  • Clinic-based efforts to support adherence should be planned and maintained over time
  • A combination of therapeutic techniques should be used to develop and support intention, motivation, and skills for achieving optimal adherence
  • Knowledge of the importance of adherence is a necessary component, but education strategies alone are not sufficient for promoting sustained adherence
  • Types of Adherence Interventions
      Patient Education
        Psychoeducational Counseling Techniques: Motivational Interviewing and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
          Treatment Selection
            Management of Adverse Drug Reactions
              Attention to Comorbidities
                Positive Interface With the Clinical Setting
                  Social Support Network
                    Organizational and Problem-Solving Skills
                      Directly Observed Therapy
                        Viral Load Monitoring

                        Action required

                        Keywords: Adherence