Metabolic Complications of HIV and Antiretroviral Therapy: Dyslipidemia, Insulin Resistance, and Cardiovascular Disease

  • Authors: Judith S. Currier, MD, MSc; Risa Hoffman, MD, MPH (More Info)
  • Editors in Chief: Joseph J. Eron, Jr., MD; Daniel R. Kuritzkes, MD
  • Last Reviewed: 10/10/18 (What's New)



  • Increased rates of dyslipidemia, abnormal glucose metabolism, and cardiovascular disease are seen in HIV-infected persons
  • Traditional risk factors, HIV-related factors, and ART-related factors contribute to the increased prevalence

Risk Factors and Mechanisms of Dyslipidemia: HIV Infection vs Antiretroviral Therapy

  • Traditional risk factors for dyslipidemia remain relevant to HIV-infected patients
    • These include older age, male sex, family history, poor diet, increased BMI, and sedentary lifestyle
  • All HIV-infected patients should have fasting lipids evaluated at entry to care and before ART initiation[Aberg 2014]
    • Baseline history-taking should explore potential risk factors for dyslipidemia, including family history of genetic syndromes[Behrens 1999a; Aberg 2014]
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