Management of Bone Disease and Body Composition Changes

  • Author: Donald P. Kotler, MD (More Info)
  • Section Editor: Eric S. Daar, MD
  • Editors in Chief: Daniel R. Kuritzkes, MD; Joseph J. Eron, Jr., MD
  • Last Reviewed: 5/7/18 (What's New)


  • SMART study compared the effects of continuous ART vs CD4+ cell count–directed, intermittent ART on bone density in 1 substudy of 214 subjects[Grund 2009]
    • Significantly more patients receiving continuous ART had decreased bone density compared with patients receiving intermittent ART
    • In addition, significantly more patients receiving continuous ART reported grade 4 fractures compared with those receiving intermittent therapy

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