Low antituberculosis drug concentrations in patients with AIDS.

Peloquin CA, Nitta AT, Burman WJ, Brudney KF, Miranda-Massari JR, McGuinness ME, Berning SE, Gerena GT.

Ann Pharmacother. 1996 Sep;30(9):919-25. doi: 10.1177/106002809603000901.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and magnitude of below normal apparent peak serum concentrations for antituberculosis drugs in patients with AIDS and CD4 cell counts less than 200 cells/mm3. We also explored the data for potential relationships between response variables and patient characteristics. DESIGN: Prospective study of consecutive patients seen in tuberculosis clinics. SETTING: Five urban tuberculosis clinics in four major metropolitan areas. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-six patients diagnosed with HIV infection and receiving treatment for active tuberculosis were eligible. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: After 2 weeks or more of therapy, blood was collected 2 hours after observed doses of the antituberculosis drugs. Serum samples were frozen, shipped to National Jewish Center in Denver, and analyzed by HPLC or GC. Serum concentrations were compared with the proposed normal ranges. Data were analyzed to determine correlations between antituberculosis drug serum concentrations and patient characteristics. RESULTS: Low-2-hour serum concentrations were common for antituberculosis drugs, particularly rifampin and ethambutol. Absorption of isoniazid was generally high. Potential drug-drug interactions were found between rifampin and fluconazole (fluconazole appears to increase rifampin concentrations) and between pyrazinamide and zidovudine (zidovudine may lower pyrazinamide concentrations). Patients receiving pyrazinamide had lower rifampin concentrations than those not receiving pyrazinamide. CONCLUSIONS: Low antituberculosis drug serum concentrations occur frequently during the treatment of tuberculosis in patients with AIDS. Additional research is required for patients with drug-resistant tuberculosis, and to clarify the nature of the potential drug-drug interactions.

PMID: 8876848

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.