The Approach to the Patient With HIV With Specific Symptom Complexes/Common Presentations

  • Author: Steven C. Johnson, MD (More Info)
  • Editors in Chief: Daniel R. Kuritzkes, MD; Joseph J. Eron, Jr., MD
  • Last Reviewed: 10/31/21 (What's New)


  • Candida esophagitis, herpes simplex esophagitis, and cytomegalovirus esophagitis are the main opportunistic causes of dysphagia in patients with CD4+ cell counts < 200 cells/mm3 (Table 1)
  • If no improvement with antifungal therapy, upper endoscopy is typically necessary to determine etiology for presumed Candida esophagitis
  • For patients with higher CD4+ cell counts, causes of dysphagia may be similar to those seen in the general population

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