The Approach to the Patient With HIV With Specific Symptom Complexes/Common Presentations

  • Author: Steven C. Johnson, MD (More Info)
  • Editors in Chief: Daniel R. Kuritzkes, MD; Joseph J. Eron, Jr., MD
  • Last Reviewed: 10/31/21 (What's New)


  • Chronic progressive mental status changes can be seen with HIV-associated dementia
  • Acute mental status changes may be related to encephalopathy during acute HIV infection, opportunistic infections and malignancies of the CNS, drug intoxication, hypoxia, sepsis, and hepatic encephalopathy
  • Head imaging followed by lumbar puncture, if safe, are often necessary

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