The Approach to the Patient With HIV With Specific Symptom Complexes/Common Presentations

  • Author: Steven C. Johnson, MD (More Info)
  • Editors in Chief: Daniel R. Kuritzkes, MD; Joseph J. Eron, Jr., MD
  • Last Reviewed: 10/31/21 (What's New)


  • Cytomegalovirus retinitis occurs in patients with HIV with CD4+ cell counts < 50 cells/mm3
  • Other causes of retinitis in HIV infection include varicella zoster virus, Toxoplasma, and herpes simplex virus
  • HIV retinopathy is typically manifested by cotton wool spots on the retina without hemorrhage

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