Tuberculosis and Other Mycobacterial Infections
- TB is the most common opportunistic infection seen in patients infected with HIV and is the most common cause of death globally in people with HIV
- WHO recommends a strategy of integrated service delivery, including HIV interventions among patients with TB and TB interventions among patients with HIV
Tuberculosis (TB), an important cause of illness and death worldwide, is the leading killer of people with HIV/AIDS. In 2015, 1.2 million (11%) of the estimated 10.4 million global incident TB cases occurred in patients with HIV coinfection, with TB accounting for 0.4 million deaths of HIV-infected patients.[WHO Global Report 2016] Infection with HIV increases the rate of TB disease progression, whereas active TB disease increases the rate of HIV disease progression and thereby diminishes survival time. TB can also be challenging to diagnose in persons with HIV infection. Because of the intertwined nature of the TB and HIV epidemics, the World Health Organization recommends a strategy of integrated service delivery, including HIV interventions among TB patients and TB interventions among HIV patients.