Tuberculosis and Other Mycobacterial Infections

  • Authors: Richard E. Chaisson, MD (More Info)
  • Editors in Chief: Daniel R. Kuritzkes, MD; Joseph J. Eron, Jr., MD
  • Last Reviewed: 3/30/17 (What's New)



  • TB is the most common opportunistic infection seen in patients infected with HIV and is the most common cause of death globally in people with HIV
  • WHO recommends a strategy of integrated service delivery, including HIV interventions among patients with TB and TB interventions among patients with HIV

Transmission of Tuberculosis

  • TB is transmitted via inhalation of respiratory droplets from individuals with untreated or ineffectively treated TB
  • Transmission in health facilities is an important route of infection for patients in high-burden settings
  • Healthcare workers are at heightened risk of infection because of frequent contact with patients with infectious TB
  • Guidelines on protecting healthcare workers from TB have been published jointly by the International Labor Organization, WHO, and UNAIDS (Management Guidelines)[WHO Health Worker Guideline]

Epidemiology of Tuberculosis