Viral Infections

  • Author: Jin S. Suh, MD, FACP; Humberto R. Jimenez, PharmD, BCPS, AAHIVP (More Info)
  • Editors in Chief: Daniel R. Kuritzkes, MD; Joseph J. Eron, Jr., MD
  • Last Reviewed: 8/1/21 (What's New)


    • Although PML incidence has decreased significantly since the widespread use of ART, PML has been reported in patients with HIV who have CD4+ cell counts > 300 cells/mm3 and as a complication of IRIS[Albrecht 1998]
    • Diagnosis of PML-IRIS should be considered in any person with HIV developing unexplained neurologic disorders or worsening of a previously diagnosed after the initiation or resumption of ART
    Clinical Presentation
    • Clinical manifestations of PML vary depending on the area of the central nervous system involved, ranging from diffuse encephalopathy to focal deficits such as ataxia, hemiparesis, or speech difficulties
        Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy Prophylaxis

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