Incidence of, risk factors for, clinical presentation, and 1-year outcomes of infective endocarditis in an urban HIV cohort.

Gebo KA, Burkey MD, Lucas GM, Moore RD, Wilson LE.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006 Dec 1;43(4):426-32. doi: 10.1097/01.qai.0000243120.67529.78.

BACKGROUND: Previous studies described infective endocarditis (IE) in the era before highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART); however, IE has not been well studied in the current HAART era. We evaluated the incidence of, risk factors for, clinical presentation, and 1-year outcomes of IE in HIV-infected patients. METHODS: We evaluated all cases of IE diagnosed between 1990 and 2002 in patients followed at the Johns Hopkins Hospital outpatient HIV clinic. To identify factors associated with IE in the current era of HAART, a nested case-control analysis was employed for all initial episodes of IE occurring between 1996 and 2002. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess risk factors for IE and factors associated with 1-year mortality. RESULTS: IE incidence decreased from 20.5 to 6.6 per 1000 person-years (PY) between 1990 and 1995 and 1996 and 2002. The majority of IE cases were male (66%), African American (90%), and injection drug users (IDUs) (85%). In multivariate regression, an increased risk of IE occurred in IDUs (AOR, 8.71), those with CD4 counts <50 cells/mm, and those with HIV-1 RNA >100,000 copies/mL (AOR, 3.88). Common presenting symptoms included fever (62%), chills (31%), and shortness of breath (26%). The most common etiologic organism was Staphylococcus aureus (69%; of these 11 [28%] were methicillin resistant). Within 1 year, 16% had IE recurrence, and 52% died. Age over 40 years was associated with increased mortality. CONCLUSIONS: IE rates have decreased in the current HAART era. IDUs and those with advanced immunosuppression are more likely to develop IE. In addition, there is significant morbidity and 1-year mortality in HIV-infected patients with IE, indicating the need for more aggressive follow-up, especially in those over 40 years of age. Future studies investigating the utility of IE prophylaxis in HIV patients with a history of IE may be warranted.

PMID: 17099314

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.