Fungal Infections

  • Author: William G. Powderly, MD (More Info)
  • Editors in Chief: Daniel R. Kuritzkes, MD; Joseph J. Eron, Jr., MD
  • Last Reviewed: 6/18/19 (What's New)


  • Incidence of HIV-associated fungal infections has decreased significantly with the advent of effective ART[Palella 2006]
  • Certain fungal infections (eg, oropharyngeal candidiasis) remain sentinel signs of HIV infection and should prompt HIV testing in people at risk
  • In patients living with HIV, fungal infections indicate disease progression and the need to initiate or review ART

Like other opportunistic infections, HIV-associated fungal infections have decreased significantly in incidence with the advent of effective antiretroviral therapy.[Palella 2006] However, certain fungal infections, such as oropharyngeal candidiasis, remain sentinel signs of HIV infection, and the appearance of oropharyngeal candidiasis in a person at risk of HIV infection should prompt HIV testing. In a person living with HIV, the development of a fungal infection suggests disease progression and immune dysfunction and should prompt consideration of new or altered antiretroviral therapy.



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