- Incidence of HIV-associated fungal infections has decreased significantly with the advent of effective ART[Palella 2006]
- Certain fungal infections (eg, oropharyngeal candidiasis) remain sentinel signs of HIV infection and should prompt HIV testing in people at risk
- In patients living with HIV, fungal infections indicate disease progression and the need to initiate or review ART
- Oropharyngeal candidiasis occurs in approximately 75% of patients with progressive HIV infection
- Tends to be recurrent and progressively more severe with increasing immunodeficiency
- Esophageal candidiasis occurs predominantly in patients with CD4+ cell counts < 100 cells/mm3
- Vulvovaginal candidiasis occurs in 30% to 40% of women with HIV infection
- Severity and persistence of disease may be increased in women with HIV[Cu-Uvin 1999; ...