Natural history and prognostic factors for survival in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL).

Raez LE, Patel P, Feun L, Restrepo A, Raub WA Jr, Cassileth PA.

Crit Rev Oncog. 1998;9(3-4):199-208.

The incidence of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is increasing rapidly. It will be the most common primary malignant neoplasm of the brain by the year 2000. PCNSL is an important lethal complication in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. Our objective was to study the natural history and prognostic factors for survival in patients with AIDS-related PCNSL. This is a retrospective cohort study of 75 patients with the diagnosis of AIDS-related PCNSL followed at Jackson Memorial Hospital/University of Miami. Medical records were abstracted for information about age, gender, race, and ethnicity. The method of diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of AIDS and PCNSL in this group were examined. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify prognostic factors for survival. The median age was 37 years. Males comprised 84% of the patients and 55% of the patients were Hispanic. The most common human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk factors were homosexuality and multiple sexual partners. The median cluster designation (CD) 4 count was 15/microl and the median lactic dehydrogensase (LDH) was 1.5x normal. Computed-assisted tomographic (CT) scans of the brain showed multiple lesions in 44% of the patients. Single-photon emission CT scan (SPECT) Thallium-201 of the brain was performed in two-thirds of patients. The most common histologies were immunoblastic and large cell lymphoma. Cranial radiation was given to 72% of the patients, and 55% of them did not complete treatment. The median survival of the group was 1.3 months. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that longer survival was associated with good performance status (ECOG = 1 to 2 vs. 3 to 4). The presence of prior opportunistic infections, risk factors for AIDS, CD4 counts, level of LDH, ethnicity, gender, duration of symptoms before diagnosis, and race did not influence survival. PCNSL is a neoplasm with a very poor prognosis and short survival even with CNS radiation therapy. Performance status appears to be the main prognostic factor for survival. No significant differences in presentation or outcome were detected between the Hispanic and non-Hispanic patients.

PMID: 10201628

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.