Testicular germ cell tumors in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection.

Hentrich MU, Brack NG, Schmid P, Schuster T, Clemm C, Hartenstein RC.

Cancer. 1996 May 15;77(10):2109-16. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0142(19960515)77:10<2109::AID-CNCR22>3.0.CO;2-Y.

BACKGROUND: There has been evidence of a higher incidence of testicular germ cell tumors (GCT) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive men than in the non HIV-infected male population. Most authors recommend standard therapy for HIV-positive patients with GCT but the immumosuppressive effects of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy must be considered. METHODS: The records of all patients in whom testicular cancer was diagnosed and/or treated at a single institution between January 1986 and July 1995 were reviewed with regard to HIV seropositivity. Tumor histology, initial staging, treatment, and the patients' outcomes were analyzed in connection with a review of the literature. RESULTS: Six patients with GCT and documented HIV seropositivity at the time of tumor diagnosis (four homosexuals, one bisexual, and one heterosexual former intravenous drug abuser) of 192 documented cases of testicular cancer are reported. In addition, 1 patient proved to be HIV seropositive 34 months after completing chemotherapy (vinblastine, ifosfamide, and cisplatin) for Stage IIB (minimal disease) seminoma. Intensified platinum-based chemotherapy was administered to two patients with clinical Stage IIIC (advanced disease) nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT). Both patients achieved a transient partial response but suffered from progressive HIV disease and died 24 and 7 months, respectively, after orchiectomy. One patient with Stage IIIA (moderate disease) seminoma received four courses of chemotherapy (etoposide, ifosfamide, and cisplatin) and has remained in complete remission for 40 months. One patient with bilateral Stage I seminoma underwent adjuvant radiotherapy but was lost to follow-up. One patient with clinical Stage IIA (minimal disease) NSGCT refused any further treatment after hemiorchiectomy, but four courses of chemotherapy (cisplatin, etoposide and bleomycin) had to be given 32 months later because of symptomatic abdominal disease. A partial remission was obtained and there was no evidence of active tumor 16 months after the completion of chemotherapy. A retroperitoneal lymph node dissection was performed in 1 patient with Stage I NSGCT who was free of disease 111 months after diagnosis. The Centers for Disease Control classification for HIV infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) did not change after therapy in two patients, whereas three patients suffered from progressive HIV disease. CONCLUSIONS: HIV infection should be considered in patients with testicular cancer who belong to an urban population. Oncologic therapy based on a patient's individual situation is recommended.

PMID: 8640678

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