Endocrine Disorders: Evaluation and Management
- Endocrine abnormalities are commonly observed among HIV-infected patients
- Age-related endocrine problems, such as hypogonadism, have become more prevalent since the introduction of effective ART
Since early in the AIDS epidemic, endocrine abnormalities have been commonly observed among HIV-infected patients. In the mid-1980s, adrenal insufficiency and hypogonadism were described in patients with advanced AIDS. With the introduction of potent combination ART, endocrine abnormalities that were associated with advanced illness (such as hypogonadism) initially decreased in frequency. However, with the aging of the HIV population, many age-related endocrine problems are again becoming prevalent and important. This module describes the diagnosis and management of 4 commonly encountered endocrine abnormalities: adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadism, thyroid dysfunction, and diabetes mellitus. Special attention is given to differences in the presentation and management of these abnormalities in the HIV-infected population that arise from chronic HIV infection, ART, or HIV-related comorbidities.
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