Endocrine Disorders: Evaluation and Management

  • Author: Todd T. Brown, MD (More Info)
  • Editors in Chief: Daniel R. Kuritzkes, MD; Joseph J. Eron, Jr., MD
  • Last Reviewed: 11/14/16 (What's New)


  • Overt hyperthyroidism is characterized by irritability, heat intolerance, sweating, warm moist skin, palpitations, tachycardia, fatigue, weight loss with increased appetite, diarrhea, tremor, muscle weakness, hyperreflexia, and lid retraction along with low TSH (often < 0.02 mU/L) and elevated FT4 and T3[Weetman 2000]
  • Graves’ disease is the leading cause of hyperthyroidism in the general population and in HIV-infected individuals[Pearce 2003] and may occur after immune reconstitution from ART[Hirsch 2004; Battegay 2006; Chen 2005; Knysz 2006]
  • PI use has been associated with hyperthyroidism,[Nelson 2009] and use of interferon alfa-2b with Graves’ disease[Mandac 2006]

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