Endocrine Disorders: Evaluation and Management

  • Author: Todd T. Brown, MD (More Info)
  • Editors in Chief: Daniel R. Kuritzkes, MD; Joseph J. Eron, Jr., MD
  • Last Reviewed: 11/14/16 (What's New)


  • Adrenal insufficiency is classified as primary (failure at the level of the adrenal gland) or secondary (failure at the level of the pituitary or hypothalamus)
  • In primary AI, the plasma ACTH level is generally high (> 100 pg/mL), whereas in secondary AI, plasma ACTH is low or low-to-normal
  • Primary AI may present with salt craving, hyperkalemia, or hyperpigmentation

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