- Endocrine abnormalities are commonly observed among HIV-infected patients
- Age-related endocrine problems, such as hypogonadism, have become more prevalent since the introduction of effective ART
Introduction to Adrenal Insufficiency
- Adrenal insufficiency should be considered in patients with unexplained dizziness, fatigue, weight loss, hyperkalemia, or hyponatremia (Table 1)
- Symptoms of adrenal insufficiency can also develop during stress, with withdrawal of steroids, or with intermittent steroid exposure and may be confused with HIV lipodystrophy[Samaras 2005]
Diagnosis of Adrenal Insufficiency
- A serum cortisol sample drawn at 8:00 am (the period of peak cortisol secretion) is a useful screening test in most patients[Salvatori 2005]
- A confirmed serum cortisol level < 3 µg/dL is diagnostic of adrenal insufficiency; levels > 18 µg/dL rule out the diagnosis[...