Ophthalmic manifestations of infections with Cryptococcus neoformans in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

Kestelyn P, Taelman H, Bogaerts J, Kagame A, Abdel Aziz M, Batungwanayo J, Stevens AM, Van de Perre P.

Am J Ophthalmol. 1993 Dec 15;116(6):721-7. doi: 10.1016/s0002-9394(14)73472-5.

The present study was undertaken to determine the nature and the prevalence of ophthalmic manifestations of infections with Cryptococcus neoformans in human immunodeficiency virus seropositive patients and to analyze whether the presence or absence of ocular signs is associated with improved survival. Eighty human immunodeficiency virus seropositive patients with cryptococcal infection were enrolled. We observed papilledema in 26 of the 80 patients (32.5%). Visual loss and abducens nerve palsy occurred in seven patients (9%). Only two patients (2.5%) had optic atrophy. Visual loss caused by optic nerve involvement was less frequent among the 62 patients treated with oral conazoles exclusively than among the 18 patients who had received amphotericin B or a combination of amphotericin B and conazoles. Actual invasion of the intraocular structures with Cryptococcus neoformans was an uncommon complication in our series. In addition to the ocular manifestations attributable to cryptococcal disease, human immunodeficiency virus-related retinopathy was present in nearly half of the patients. Cytomegalovirus retinitis was diagnosed in four patients (5%). The 26 patients (32.5%) with papilledema had a median survival of 182 days vs 160 days for the patients without papilledema. The median survival for 18 patients (22.5%) with cotton-wool spots was 102 days vs 186 days for those without cotton-wool spots. The differences between these subgroups were not statistically significant.

PMID: 8250075

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.