Secondary mania in patients with HIV infection.

Ellen SR, Judd FK, Mijch AM, Cockram A.

Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 1999 Jun;33(3):353-60. doi: 10.1046/j.1440-1614.1999.00574.x.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify a cohort of patients with mania secondary to HIV infection, to describe the clinical and radiological features of HIV-related mania, and to describe the treatment outcome of the patients. METHOD: All patients referred to the HIV consultation-liaison psychiatry service over the 29-month period from January 1993 to June 1995 were screened for the presence of manic symptoms. Diagnosis of mania was made according to DSM-III-R. Cases were defined as secondary mania if there was no clear history of mood disorder, and no family history of mood disorder. Cases were interviewed by the treating psychiatry registrar and psychiatrist to obtain information regarding present and past psychiatric history and family history of psychiatric disorder. The psychiatry registrar and consultant determined treatment. RESULTS: Twenty-three patients with mania were identified; 19 were considered to have secondary mania. The prevalence of secondary mania over the 29 months was 1.2% for HIV-positive patients, and 4.3% for those with AIDS. The clinical characteristics and response to treatment appeared to be similar to mania associated with bipolar affective disorder (primary mania). Neuroradiological abnormalities were common, occurring in 10 of the 19 patients, but did not appear to be clinically relevant. Cognitive impairment developed in five of the 15 patients where follow-up was possible. CONCLUSIONS: Mania occurring in advanced HIV disease appears to be more common than expected from epidemiological data regarding bipolar affective disorder. Differentiating secondary from primary mania has implications for the management and prognosis of mania.

PMID: 10442791

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.