Factors associated with incident human immunodeficiency virus-dementia.

Stern Y, McDermott MP, Albert S, Palumbo D, Selnes OA, McArthur J, Sacktor N, Schifitto G, Kieburtz K, Epstein L, Marder KS.

Arch Neurol. 2001 Mar;58(3):473-9. doi: 10.1001/archneur.58.3.473.

BACKGROUND: Antecedents to human immunodeficiency virus-dementia (HIV-D) are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for HIV-D. METHODS: Subjects who are positive for HIV who have CD4+ counts either below 200/microL or below 300/microL with evidence of cognitive impairment were enrolled in this study. Neurologic, cognitive, functional, and laboratory assessments were done semiannually for up to 30 months. Human immunodeficiency virus-dementia was diagnosed using American Academy of Neurology criteria for probable HIV-1-associated dementia complex. RESULTS: One hundred forty-six nondemented patients were enrolled, 45 of whom subsequently met criteria for incident HIV-D. In univariate analyses using the Cox proportional hazards regression model, the following variables were significantly associated with time to develop dementia: cognitive: abnormal scores on Timed Gait, Verbal Fluency, Grooved Pegboard, and Digit Symbol tests; attention-memory, psychomotor, and executive function domain scores; and the diagnosis of minor cognitive/motor disorder; neurologic and medical: increased abnormalities on the neurologic examination, extrapyramidal signs, history of HIV-related medical symptoms; functional: higher reported role or physical function difficulties. Depression was also a strong risk factor, along with sex, hematocrit, hemoglobin, and beta2-microglobulin levels. In a multivariate model that used cognitive domain scores, covariates with significant hazard ratios included depression, executive dysfunction, and the presence of minor cognitive/motor disorder. CONCLUSION: Cognitive deficits, minor cognitive/motor disorder, and depression may be early manifestations of HIV-D.

PMID: 11255452

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.