- Without access to ART, kidney disease is largely driven by patients’ genetics, demographics, and HIV infection itself
- With access to ART, kidney disease is driven by non-HIV–related causes similar to those affecting the general population
- Kidney disease should prompt assessment of cardiovascular risk profile and treatment
Microalbuminuria and Cardiovascular Risk
- Increasing levels of microalbuminuria among persons with HIV associated with risks of cardiovascular events and heart failure in “dose-dependent” manner[Choi 2010]
- In HIV-positive individuals, proteinuria is associated with more than 2-fold increased risk of cardiovascular event[George 2010]
Clinical Symptoms of Kidney Disease in People With HIV
- Clinical symptoms associated with kidney disease generally vague and nonspecific...