Management of Renal Disease

  • Author: Mohamed G. Atta, MD, MPH (More Info)
  • Editors in Chief: Daniel R. Kuritzkes, MD; Joseph J. Eron, Jr., MD
  • Last Reviewed: 3/14/17 (What's New)



  • Without access to ART, kidney disease is largely driven by patients’ genetics, demographics, and HIV infection itself
  • With access to ART, kidney disease is driven by non-HIV–related causes similar to those affecting the general population
  • Kidney disease should prompt assessment of cardiovascular risk profile and treatment

Microalbuminuria and Cardiovascular Risk

  • Increasing levels of microalbuminuria among persons with HIV associated with risks of cardiovascular events and heart failure in “dose-dependent” manner[Choi 2010]
  • In HIV-positive individuals, proteinuria is associated with more than 2-fold increased risk of cardiovascular event[George 2010]

Clinical Symptoms of Kidney Disease in People With HIV