Management of IRIS

  • Authors: Irini Sereti, MD, MHS; Philip Grant, MD (More Info)
  • Editors in Chief: Daniel R. Kuritzkes, MD; Joseph J. Eron, Jr., MD
  • Last Reviewed: 4/1/16 (What's New)


  • Use of combination ART can be complicated by IRIS
  • IRIS is the worsening of a recognized (paradoxical IRIS) or unrecognized (unmasking IRIS) preexisting infection in the setting of improved immunologic function

Combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has dramatically reduced morbidity and mortality associated with HIV, but its use can be complicated by immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). During the era of zidovudine monotherapy, atypical presentations of Mycobacterium avium complex were described.[French 1992] However, IRIS as a distinct clinical entity was not fully appreciated until the introduction of ART.[Race 1998; Karavellas 1999]


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Keywords: IRIS