The prevalence and risk of immune restoration disease in HIV-infected patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy.

Jevtovic DJ, Salemovic D, Ranin J, Pesic I, Zerjav S, Djurkovic-Djakovic O.

HIV Med. 2005 Mar;6(2):140-3. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-1293.2005.00277.x.

BACKGROUND: It is becoming increasingly clear that, during successful highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), a proportion of treated patients develop opportunistic infections (OIs), referred to in this setting as immune restoration disease (IRD). We examined the risk of developing IRD in HAART-treated HIV-infected patients. METHODS: A retrospective study of a cohort including all 389 patients treated with HAART between 1 January 1998 and 31 May 2004 in our HIV unit was performed to evaluate the occurrence of and risk factors for IRD during HAART. Baseline and follow-up values of CD4 T-cell counts and plasma viral loads (pVLs) were compared to assess the success of HAART. RESULTS: During successful HAART (significant increase in CD4 T-cell counts and decrease in pVL), at least one IRD episode occurred in 65 patients (16.7%). The median time to IRD was 4.6 months (range 2-12 months). IRDs included dermatomal herpes zoster (26 patients), pulmonary tuberculosis (four patients), tuberculous exudative pericarditis (two patients), tuberculous lymphadenitis (two patients), cerebral toxoplasmosis (one patient), progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (PML) (one patient), inflamed molluscum (one patient), inflamed Candida albicans angular cheilitis (three patients), genital herpes simplex (two patients), tinea corporis (two patients), cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis (two patients), CMV vitritis (one patient) and hepatitis B (three patients) or C (fifteen patients). A baseline CD4 T-cell count below 100 cells/microL was shown to be the single predictor [odds ratio (OR) 2.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.9-6.4] of IRD, while a CD4 T-cell count increase to >400 cells/microL, but not undetectable pVL, was a negative predictor of IRD (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1-0.8). CONCLUSIONS: To avoid IRD in advanced patients, HAART should be initiated before the CD4 T-cell count falls below 100 cells/microL.

PMID: 15807721

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