Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma as a rare manifestation of immune reconstitution disease in HIV-1 positive patients.

Knysz B, Kuliszkiewicz-Janus M, Jelen M, Podlasin R, Gladysz A.

Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online). 2006;60:547-51.

Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) can improve immune system function through suppression of HIV-1 replication. However, paradoxical immune response may develop in some patients as a result of effective therapy followed by immune restoration. The phenomena is known as IRS, immune reconstitution syndrome/immune recovery syndrome. IRS can develop within weeks to months after cART is commenced and the time is related to the type of the disease. There are but scant reports concerning IRS-NHL (non-Hodgkin's lymphoma) in HIV-1 positive subjects. We observed 4 (33%) cases of IRS-NHL out of 12 patients in whom NHL was diagnosed. As a result of potent cART they reached viral suppression in a mean time of 15 weeks followed by a rise in CD4(+) T cells within 16.5 weeks. The diagnosis of NHL was established at a mean time of 36 weeks after cART was introduced and 20 weeks after the CD4 T cell increase was achieved. This may indicate that the immune reconstitution as a result of cART was a predisposing factor for the development of NHL in our patients. There was prompt progression of the disease and the outcome was fatal in all cases. IRS-NHL should be suspected in any case of lymphadenopathy, generalized or limited to the abdomen or periphery, which develops after immune recovery due to potent cART within a few months.

PMID: 17060896

From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.