Management of Children With or Exposed to HIV

  • Authors: James A. McAuley, MD, MPH; Mariam Aziz, MD (More Info)
  • Editors in Chief: Joseph J. Eron, Jr., MD; Daniel R. Kuritzkes, MD
  • Last Reviewed: 9/5/21 (What's New)


  • An estimated 1.7 million children are living with HIV infection worldwide[UNAIDS]
  • Mother-to-child HIV transmission is rare in well-resourced settings but more common in resource-limited countries
  • Pediatric HIV infection is characterized by:
    • Distinct clinical and virologic manifestations of perinatal HIV infection in growing, immunologically immature persons
    • In utero, intrapartum, and/or postpartum neonatal exposure to ART
    • The need for HIV virologic tests instead of antibody tests to diagnose perinatal HIV infection in infants younger than 18 months of age
    • Age-specific differences in CD4+ cell counts
    • Age-specific changes in drug metabolism and clearance
    • Issues associated with ART adherence in infants and young children

An estimated 1.7 million children younger than 15 years of age are living with HIV infection worldwide, the vast majority of whom acquired the infection from their mother.[UNAIDS]...

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