Special Considerations in the Management of Women With HIV, Including Management of Conception and Pregnancy

  • Author: Sigal Yawetz, MD (More Info)
  • Section Editor: Judith S. Currier, MD, MSc
  • Editors in Chief: Joseph J. Eron, Jr., MD; Daniel R. Kuritzkes, MD
  • Last Reviewed: 10/25/21 (What's New)


  • Although not recommended in women with viral suppression, women whose HIV-1 RNA remains > 1000 copies/mL near the time of delivery should be advised to undergo Cesarean section at 38 weeks’ gestation (Management Guidelines)[DHHS Perinatal]
  • Scheduled Cesarean section delivery to reduce perinatal transmission risk for women receiving antiretroviral therapy with HIV-1 RNA ≤ 1000 copies/mL is not recommended
  • Invasive fetal monitoring, operative delivery with vacuum devices or forceps, and episiotomy should be avoided in women with HIV[Mofenson 1999; Shapiro 1999]

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