Special Considerations and Clinical Management of HIV-Infected Drug Users

  • Author: Frederick L. Altice, MD (More Info)
  • Editors in Chief: Daniel R. Kuritzkes, MD; Joseph J. Eron, Jr., MD
  • Last Reviewed: 4/1/16 (What's New)


  • 3,4 methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (Ecstasy) has mild stimulatory effects on the central nervous system as well as hallucinogenic and psychedelic properties
  • Long-term use has been associated with cognitive impairment, depression, anxiety, and insomnia[Black 2009; Vanden Eede 2012; Kaye 2009; Rogers 2009; Wu 2009a; Wu 2009b]

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