Special Considerations and Clinical Management of HIV-Infected Drug Users

  • Author: Frederick L. Altice, MD (More Info)
  • Editors in Chief: Daniel R. Kuritzkes, MD; Joseph J. Eron, Jr., MD
  • Last Reviewed: 4/1/16 (What's New)


  • Gradual taper using methadone or buprenorphine is the best-supported method for withdrawing from opioids[SAMHSA 2006]
  • Supervised opioid withdrawal without chronic opioid substitution therapy should be reserved for short-term opioid users (less than 2 years), young adults, and noninjectors[Mattick 2003a; Amato 2004]

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