Latest Updates

1/11/2017 - Dyslipidemia

4/1/2016 - Optimizing Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy
  • Recertified for Point of Care Credit

9/28/2015 - Considerations for Aging HIV-Infected Patients

9/23/2015 - Overview of HIV Prevention

8/19/2015 - Timing of Initiation of First-line Antiretroviral Therapy

7/31/2015 - Suppressed Patients

7/23/2015 - Dyslipidemia

11/14/2014 - Sexually Transmitted Diseases

11/14/2014 - TB and Other Mycobacterial Infections

11/6/2014 - Management of IRIS

10/24/2014 - Renal Disease

6/26/2014 - Secondary HIV Prevention

6/10/2014 - HIV Exposure

5/30/2014 - Hepatic Disease

5/21/2014 - Suppressed Patients

5/15/2014 - Timing of Initiation of First-line Antiretroviral Therapy

4/24/2014 - HIV-Infected Women

4/9/2014 - Suppressed Patients
  • New phase III results from the STRATEGY-PI and the STRATEGY-NNRTI trials of switching virologically suppressed patients to once-daily cobicistat/elvitegravir/emtricitabine/tenofovir DF

2/26/2014 - Considerations for Aging HIV-Infected Patients

2/21/2014 - Overview of HIV Prevention

2/18/2014 - Non–AIDS-Defining Cancers
  • Summary bullets added to show key highlights for quick point-of-care reference on management of non–AIDS-defining cancers

2/18/2014 - Treatment-Experienced Patients
  • Summary bullets added to show key highlights for quick point-of-care reference on management of treatment-experienced HIV-infected patients

12/11/2013 - HIV-Infected Women
  • Summary bullets added to show key highlights for quick point-of-care reference (Topic: HIV-Infected Women)

12/10/2013 - HIV-Associated Ocular Complications

10/29/2013 - Non–AIDS-Defining Cancers

10/23/2013 - AIDS-Defining Cancers

10/16/2013 - Bacterial Infections

9/27/2013 - Viral Infections

9/16/2013 - Specific Symptom Complexes

Updated with the following:

9/12/2013 - Parasitic Infections

8/28/2013 - Sexually Transmitted Diseases

7/24/2013 - HIV Care, Resource Limited

7/23/2013 - Management of Neurologic Diseases

3/25/2013 - Management of Hematologic Disorders
  • References reviewed and updated to reflect recent publications

2/26/2013 - Drug-Drug Interactions

2/13/2013 - Global HIV Epidemiology
  • Updated to include published references developed from conference data

2/13/2013 - Developed World
  • Updated to include published references developed from conference data

1/28/2013 - Overview of HIV Prevention

9/27/2012 - HIV-Infected Women

5/23/2012 - Hepatic Disease

11/1/2011 - AIDS-Defining Cancers

11/1/2011 - ARV Overview

11/1/2011 - HIV and Minority Communities

10/20/2011 - Management of Neurologic Diseases

10/13/2011 - Endocrine Disorders

10/11/2011 - Specific Symptom Complexes
  • Content reviewed and validated

9/22/2011 - Management of Hematologic Disorders

1/12/2011 - Sexually Transmitted Diseases

12/27/2010 - Testing and Diagnosis Updated to include:
  • FDA approval of a new rapid HIV test delivering results in approximately 60 seconds

12/7/2010 - Timing of Initiation of First-line Antiretroviral Therapy
  • Update on WHO guideline recommendations regarding initiation of therapy

12/7/2010 - First-line ART
  • Updated to reflect recommended/preferred regimen elements
  • Updated to include new data on NRTI-sparing regimens
  • Updated to include 96-week results of MERIT trial
  • Updated to reflect EACS guidelines recommendations for first-line therapy

12/7/2010 - ARV Overview
  • Updated to reflect the 2010 IAS-USA antiretroviral guidelines
  • Updated to reflect the discontinuation of development of vicriviroc, bevirimat, apricitabine
  • Updated to include preliminary information on phenotypic tropism testing of HIV proviral DNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells

12/7/2010 - Optimizing Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy
  • Updated to include information about previous virologic failure and ability to maintain virologic suppression
  • Updated to include new information about patient and clinic factors that may interfere with antiretroviral adherence
  • Updated to include new information about simplified regimens and reduced risk of hospitalization

12/7/2010 - Lab Assays
  • Updated to reflect current HIV treatment guideline recommendations for initiation of antiretroviral therapy
  • Updated to include information on a phenotypic viral tropism test that can be used to assess tropism in patients with undetectable HIV-1 RNA
  • Updated to include guidance from European experts on the use of tropism assays
  • Updated to include guidelines from the European AIDS Clinical Society

12/2/2010 - HIV-Infected Women
  • Updated to reflect the May 2010 DHHS guidelines on use of antiretrovirals during pregnancy
  • Updated ACOG guidelines

12/1/2010 - TB and Other Mycobacterial Infections

Updated to include:

  • Updated global epidemiology of TB infection
  • New data on the epidemiology of TB infection in women
  • Role of antiretroviral therapy for prevention of TB and mortality
  • Latent TB recommendations
  • Controversy over whether to treat all people living with HIV for latent TB infection or only those with a positive TB skin test
  • Conflicting results of treatment of latent TB infection in children
  • Update on new TB diagnostics
  • Use of steroids for the treatment of IRIS

12/1/2010 - AIDS-Defining Cancers
  • Updated to include discussion of rituximab plus concurrent infusional EPOCH chemotherapy for HIV-associated B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma

11/30/2010 - Sexually Transmitted Diseases
  • FDA approval of bivalent human papillomavirus vaccine
  • Updated data from studies
  • Updated references

11/30/2010 - HIV and Minority Communities
  • Updated prevalence data on HIV infection among men who have sex with men
  • Updated seroprevalence data on herpes simplex virus type 2 in subpopulations
  • New data on the link between poverty and HIV infection
  • New data on the impact of patient distrust on adherence rates in minority populations

11/24/2010 - Management of Neurologic Diseases Updated to include:
  • commentary on the interactions between aging and neurocognitive function
  • updated data on CNS penetration of antiretrovirals
  • insights from the CHARTER study on risk factor for distal symmetrical polyneuropathy

11/23/2010 - Management of IRIS
  • Updated to include data showing higher levels of d-dimer and C-reactive protein among patients who develop IRIS during antiretroviral therapy; new prevalence data on IRIS in patients initiating antiretroviral therapy; studies evaluating timing of antiretroviral therapy in the setting of TB; a publication of ACTG A5164 data evaluating Cryptococcus as a presenting OI; and prevalence data for paradoxical IRIS in patients initiating antiretroviral therapy with Kaposi’s sarcoma.

11/23/2010 - Psychiatric Disorders
  • Updated with new section on behavioral management for patients with personality disorders

11/23/2010 - Hepatic Disease
  • Potential for HBV flare in HIV/HBV-coinfected patients discontinuing HIV treatment
  • Value of IL28B in predicting response to hepatitis C treatment in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients
  • Efficacy of retreating HCV nonresponders
  • New data on the efficacy of vitamin E or pioglitazone in nondiabetic adults with NASH

11/22/2010 - Non–AIDS-Defining Cancers

Updated with discussion of the following:

  • Association of anal infection with oncogenic HPV types and subsequent development of anal cancer
  • Importance of smoking as a risk factor for anal carcinoma
  • Treatment options for anal dysplasia and anal cancer in HIV-infected individuals
  • Clinical course of lung cancer in HIV-positive patients
  • Screening for oropharyngeal cancer or precancerous lesions among patients with HIV infection

11/22/2010 - Dyslipidemia
  • FDA restrictions on rosiglitazone due to an increased risk of cardiovascular events
  • Data from 2 recent studies that demonstrate improvements in lipids when switching from abacavir/lamivudine to tenofovir/emtricitabine
  • Updated data from the ARIES trial
  • Data from the SPIRAL study that switched patients from suppressive boosted PI–based therapy to raltegravir-based therapy
  • New data showing an attenuation of the association between abacavir and acute myocardial infarction when patients with chronic kidney disease were excluded

11/20/2010 - Secondary HIV Prevention
  • New data on couples-based intervention strategies for special populations

11/19/2010 - Management of Hematologic Disorders Updated to include discussion of anemia in prognostic index from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study, data indicating anemia is a prognostic indicator of poorer survival in sub-Saharan Africa, risk factors for thrombocytopenia, the effects of intermittent antiretroviral therapy on platelet counts, and the use of rituximab for TTP.

11/18/2010 - Considerations for Aging HIV-Infected Patients
  • Recommendations for antiretroviral therapy initiation in older patients according to the updated IAS-USA guidelines
  • New data on the relationship between HIV infection, antiretroviral therapy, and bone loss
  • New data on the association between antiretroviral therapy and loss of renal function

11/17/2010 - Viral Infections
  • Updated with new information about zoster live vaccine and HIV-infected patients
  • Updated with information about trials of treatment of HSV as a preventive measure for transmission of HIV-1 in serodiscordant couples

11/17/2010 - Management of Drug Users
  • Updated to reflect new pharmacokinetic data.

11/17/2010 - Adolescents Updated to include:
  • Expanded indication of tenofovir to include treatment of patients aged 12 to younger than 18 years
  • Updates from the 2010 pediatric guidelines

11/17/2010 - Global HIV Epidemiology

11/17/2010 - Parasitic Infections
  • Updated to reflect new data on rooming immunocompromised patients with those who have Pneumocystis pneumonia
  • Updated to reflect new data on discontinuing prophylaxis for Pneumocystis pneumonia
  • Updated to include data on clinical implications of mutations to sulfa medications

11/17/2010 - Bacterial Infections
  • Updated with expanded information about community-acquired MRSA in HIV-infected patients.

11/17/2010 - HIV Care, Resource Limited
  • Updated to reflect new WHO guidelines for antiretroviral therapy for adults and adolescents, children, and pregnant women
  • Updated to reflect new guidelines for the treatment of HIV-infected patients with cryptococcal meningitis
  • Updated to reflect new data on clinical vs laboratory monitoring for antiretroviral therapy
  • Updated to reflect data on the impact of H1N1 influenza in resource-limited settings
  • Updated to reflect new data on the treatment of tuberculosis in the context of antiretroviral therapy
  • Updated to reflect new data on the use of antiretroviral therapy in breast-feeding mothers and its efficacy in preventing mother-to-child HIV transmission

11/17/2010 - HIV Pathogenesis
  • Results from clinical trials of raltegravir intensification of antiretroviral therapy
  • Results from trials of the addition of interleukin-2 to antiretroviral therapy

11/17/2010 - HIV-Associated Ocular Complications
  • Updated to include 5-year results from the SOCA research group on CMV retinitis in the HAART era, mortality data in the setting of resistant CMV in patients with AIDS, and discussion of HIV neuroretinal disorder.

11/17/2010 - Overview of HIV Prevention
  • Updated with data on the CAPRISA study evaluating tenofovir 1% gel for the prevention of HIV in women

11/17/2010 - Primary Care
  • Updated with new information about baseline integrase resistance testing
  • Updated with new recommendations regarding screening for TB and STDs
  • Updated with information about 2010 seasonal flu vaccine and H1N1

11/17/2010 - Endocrine Disorders
  • Updated to reflect new guidelines on testosterone therapy, an FDA statement regarding the use of propylthiouracil, new American Diabetes Association guidelines, an FDA statement regarding cardiovascular safety with rosiglitazone, and the newly available therapies liraglutide and saxagliptin.

11/17/2010 - Developed World
  • Updated surveillance data from the Centers for Disease Control
  • New data on benefits of early testing and linkage to care from Washington, DC

11/17/2010 - Specific Symptom Complexes
  • Content reviewed and recertified

11/17/2010 - Renal Disease
  • Updated to include information on the importance of screening for microalbuminuria in HIV-infected patients
  • Updated to include information about antiretrovirals and tubular necrosis

11/17/2010 - Lipoatrophy and Bone Disease
  • Updated with data from STARTMRK and ACTG 5202 on contemporary ART regimens and limb fat
  • Updated to reflect the approval of tesamorelin for reduction of excess visceral abdominal fat in HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy
  • Updated to include new data on Vitamin D deficiency in HIV-infected patients
  • Updated to include new data on factors associated with decreased bone mineral density in HIV-infected persons.

11/17/2010 - Drug-Drug Interactions
  • Content reviewed and recertified.

10/28/2010 - HIV in Children Updated to reflect the updated 2010 DHHS pediatric guidelines

10/26/2010 - Treatment-Experienced Patients
  • New data on switching a boosted PI–based regimen to a raltegravir-based regimen
  • New data on sequencing integrase inhibitors

10/22/2010 - Testing and Diagnosis
  • Updated data from the CDC on the percentage of patients in the United States unaware of their HIV status
  • New data from Washington, DC, showing the success of a routine HIV testing program
  • Approval of a combined antibody/antigen test (“fourth-generation” immunoassay)

10/18/2010 - Suppressed Patients
  • Updated data from the ARIES trial of switching from atazanavir/ritonavir to unboosted atazanavir
  • New data on switching from a boosted PI to raltegravir
  • New data on lipid improvements upon switching from abacavir/lamivudine to tenofovir/emtricitabine
  • New data on switching NNRTIs in virologically suppressed patients due to toxicity

8/27/2010 - ARV Overview
  • Updated with results of the phase III ECHO and THRIVE studies comparing rilpivirine vs efavirenz in treatment-naive patients
  • Updated with manufacturer withdrawal of vicriviroc from further development

8/13/2010 - TB and Other Mycobacterial Infections Updated with results of CAMELIA study indicating a survival advantage with initiation of antiretroviral therapy at Week 2 vs Week 8 of tuberculosis therapy

8/11/2010 - Timing of Initiation of First-line Antiretroviral Therapy Updated to reflect July 2010 changes in IAS-USA guidelines for antiretroviral therapy

8/11/2010 - HIV Care, Resource Limited
  • Updated to reflect results of the CAMELIA trial comparing HAART initiation at Week 2 vs Week 8 of TB therapy in coinfected patients

8/8/2010 - First-line ART Updated to reflect July 2010 changes in IAS-USA guidelines for antiretroviral therapy

4/20/2010 - Lab Assays Updated to include data from the 2010 Retroviruses meeting on genotyping to evaluate baseline tropism among patients in the MERIT trial

4/13/2010 - ARV Overview
  • Updated to include an FDA safety warning about saquinavir/ritonavir
  • Updated information of the use of vicriviroc in treatment-experienced patients

4/7/2010 - Primary Care Updated with results of single-site study on severity of H1N1 flu in HIV-infected patients compared with noninfected controls.

4/6/2010 - Hepatic Disease
  • Updated to reflect new data presented at AASLD on the PARADIGM study, a newly published treatment study in HIV/HCV coinfection, a new FDA alert, and new CROI data on the relationships between liver disease stage and outcomes as well as HIV disease outcomes following HCV SVR in HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals

3/25/2010 - HIV and Minority Communities
  • Updated to reflect new data from the 2010 CROI meeting on expansion of HIV testing, behaviors in women with concurrent relationships, and progression of AIDS in white vs non-white women
  • Additions also reflect newly published data on stigma among young blacks and Hispanics, conspiracy beliefs regarding HIV among blacks, linkages to care, late initiation of treatment among minorities, and the relationships between access to care and outcomes

3/25/2010 - Timing of Initiation of First-line Antiretroviral Therapy Updated to include data from the 2010 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections on risk of cardiovascular morbidity in patients with low CD4+ cell count nadirs, test and treat strategies, and prevention of transmission between HIV-serodiscordant partners.

3/25/2010 - Drug-Drug Interactions Updated to include new drug-drug interactions included in the December 1, 2009, Department of Health and Human Services guidelines, including:
  • Lamotrigine increases with lopinavir/ritonavir
  • Valproic acid decreases with lopinavir/ritonavir
  • Rifabutin concentrations with lopinavir/ritonavir
  • Interaction between salmeterol and protease inhibitors
  • Bupropion decreases with efavirenz and tipranavir/ritonavir

3/25/2010 - Dyslipidemia Updated to include:
  • Data from ACTG 5202 on lipid changes with abacavir vs tenofovir and efavirenz vs atazanavir/ritonavir
  • Results from a randomized trial of rosuvastatin vs pravastatin for the treatment of dyslipidemia
  • Data on extended-release niacin vs ezetimibe for the treatment of dyslipidemia
  • Further support for an association between kidney disease and cardiovascular disease
  • Data showing an association between low CD4+ nadir and arterial stiffness

3/24/2010 - Overview of HIV Prevention Updated to reflect data presented at the 2010 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections on
  • Benefit of antiretroviral therapy in reducing HIV transmission within serodiscordant couples
  • Relationship of community viral load and rate of new HIV infections
  • Effectiveness of HIV testing initiatives to increase early diagnoses and linkage to care
  • Negative results of a recent trial of the microbicide PRO 2000

3/19/2010 - Suppressed Patients
  • Updated with published data from the SWITCHMRK trial

3/19/2010 - First-line ART Updated to reflect final results of ACTG 5202 and 5224, ACTG 5208, ASSERT

3/18/2010 - Considerations for Aging HIV-Infected Patients
  • Updated with new data on risks of non-AIDS–defining cancers, bone disease, and renal impairment in the older HIV-infected patient

3/17/2010 - HIV in Children Updated with new data on the use of raltegravir in pediatric patients

3/16/2010 - HIV-Infected Women
  • Updated to reflect CROI 2010 data on disease progression in women and transmission rates during pregnancy as well as new published data on disparities in treatment initiation in women and the need for screening in older patients.

3/16/2010 - Treatment-Experienced Patients Updated to include recent data on once-daily use of darunavir/ritonavir and lopinavir/ritonavir in treatment-experienced patients.

1/8/2010 - Hepatic Disease
  • Updated to reflect recommendations in the December 2009 DHHS antiretroviral guidelines and November 2009 EACS guidelines.

12/18/2009 - HIV Care, Resource Limited
  • Updated to reflect November 30, 2009, updates to WHO guidelines

12/17/2009 - ARV Overview
  • Updated to reflect December 2009 DHHS guideline revision and expanded indication for maraviroc.

12/16/2009 - First-line ART Updated to reflect December 2009 changes in DHHS guidelines and expansion of maraviroc indications to include treatment-naive patients

12/16/2009 - Timing of Initiation of First-line Antiretroviral Therapy Updated to reflect recommendations on the timing of first-line therapy from the December 2009 DHHS guidelines, December 2009 WHO guidelines, and November 2009 EACS guidelines.

12/16/2009 - Lab Assays Updated to reflect December 2009 revision to DHHS practice guidelines and expanded indication of maraviroc to include treatment-naive patients.

11/10/2009 - Primary Care Updated interim recommendations from the CDC regarding vaccination for H1N1 influenza.