Special Considerations in the Management of Women With HIV, Including Management of Conception and Pregnancy

  • Author: Sigal Yawetz, MD (More Info)
  • Section Editor: Judith S. Currier, MD, MSc
  • Editors in Chief: Joseph J. Eron, Jr., MD; Daniel R. Kuritzkes, MD
  • Last Reviewed: 10/25/21 (What's New)


  • All combined hormonal contraceptive methods and intrauterine devices are listed as Category 1 (no restriction for use) for women at high risk for HIV or with HIV or AIDS by the CDC Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use[Tepper 2020] Efavirenz may decrease etonogestrel and levonorgestrel levels attained from implants[DHHS Perinatal; ref:Leticee 2012; Scarsi 2016]
  • Cobicistat may increase estrogen and progestin levels[Nanda 2017]
  • Ritonavir may decrease or increase progestin levels depending on the specific contraceptive used[Nanda 2017]

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