Parasitic Infections in HIV-Infected Patients

  • Authors: José M. Miró, MD, PhD; Miriam J. Álvarez-Martínez, MD, PhD (More Info)
  • Editors in Chief: Daniel R. Kuritzkes, MD; Joseph J. Eron, Jr., MD
  • Last Reviewed: 4/1/16 (What's New)


  • Diagnosis of PCP with microscopic examination of bronchoalveolar lavage using silver methenamine stain is considered the gold-standard technique (Figure 2)[Kovacs 2001]
  • Polymerase chain reaction–based methods performed on lower respiratory tract specimens and in noninvasive oral washes, and measurement of plasma S-adenosylmethionine, are also available[Alvarez-Martínez 2006; Larsen 2004; Chawla 2011; Oren 2011]
  • PCP may be diagnosed clinically in resource-limited settings

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