Parasitic Infections in HIV-Infected Patients

  • Authors: José M. Miró, MD, PhD; Miriam J. Álvarez-Martínez, MD, PhD (More Info)
  • Editors in Chief: Joseph J. Eron, Jr., MD; Daniel R. Kuritzkes, MD
  • Last Reviewed: 10/20/21 (What's New)


  • Definitive diagnosis of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is usually achieved by demonstrating the presence of Pneumocystis organisms (Figure 2)
  • Microscopic techniques (colorimetric or immunofluorescent) are the standard methods of PCP detection
  • Polymerase chain reaction–based methods performed on lower respiratory tract specimens and in noninvasive oral washes, and measurement of plasma S-adenosylmethionine, are also available[Alvarez-Martínez 2006; Larsen 2004; Chawla 2011; Oren 2011]

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