Management of Renal Disease

  • Author: Mohamed G. Atta, MD, MPH (More Info)
  • Editors in Chief: Daniel R. Kuritzkes, MD; Joseph J. Eron, Jr., MD
  • Last Reviewed: 3/14/17 (What's New)


  • Derangements of proximal tubular function may be indicated by the presence of urinary acidosis (type 2 tubular acidosis), glycosuria (resorptive deficiency), and phosphaturia
  • Biomarkers for screening and diagnosis of proximal tubular injury damage (particularly for drug nephrotoxicity) include serum phosphorus, uric acid, bicarbonate, potassium, urinary fractional excretion of phosphorus or uric acid, and presence of urine glucose in nondiabetic or controlled diabetic patients
  • The workup for hypophosphatemia includes calculating the fractional excretion of phosphate using serum and urine phosphate and creatinine (Figure 2)

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