Management of Bone Disease and Body Composition Changes

  • Author: Donald P. Kotler, MD (More Info)
  • Section Editor: Eric S. Daar, MD
  • Editors in Chief: Daniel R. Kuritzkes, MD; Joseph J. Eron, Jr., MD
  • Last Reviewed: 5/7/18 (What's New)


  • Lifestyle changes are key factors in the prevention and mitigation of osteopenia and include smoking cessation, promotion of resistance-training exercise, routine supplementation of vitamin D, and daily calcium intake
  • Treatment for osteoporosis is indicated in postmenopausal women or men 50 years of age or older with any of the following characteristics (Management Guidelines)[NOF 2014]:
    • Hip or vertebral (clinical or asymptomatic) fracture

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