Bacterial Infections

  • Author: Harjot K. Singh, MD (More Info)
  • Editors in Chief: Daniel R. Kuritzkes, MD; Joseph J. Eron, Jr., MD
  • Last Reviewed: 4/1/16 (What's New)


  • Guidelines on opportunistic infections recommend that empiric outpatient oral treatment for bacterial respiratory infections, including those caused by S pneumoniae, among HIV-infected individuals consist of a beta-lactam (preferred: high-dose amoxicillin or amoxicillin-clavulanate; alternative: cefpodoxime or cefuroxime) plus a macrolide (azithromycin or clarithromycin) (Table 5) (Management Guidelines)[CDC OI]
    • Empiric treatment should start promptly in HIV-infected patients
    • Antimicrobial therapy should be targeted to the specific pathogen once identified

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