Management of Renal Disease

  • Author: Mohamed G. Atta, MD, MPH (More Info)
  • Editors in Chief: Daniel R. Kuritzkes, MD; Joseph J. Eron, Jr., MD
  • Last Reviewed: 3/14/17 (What's New)


  • Increasing levels of microalbuminuria among persons with HIV associated with risks of cardiovascular events and heart failure in “dose-dependent” manner[Choi 2010]
  • In HIV-positive individuals, proteinuria is associated with more than 2-fold increased risk of cardiovascular event[George 2010]

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