Bacterial Infections

  • Author: Harjot K. Singh, MD (More Info)
  • Editors in Chief: Joseph J. Eron, Jr., MD; Daniel R. Kuritzkes, MD
  • Last Reviewed: 8/31/21 (What's New)


  • C difficile is the leading cause of nosocomial bacterial enteric infection in resource-rich countries in patients with or without immune suppression[Mylonakis 2001]
  • Incidence of C difficile infection in persons with HIV in the United States has been reported to have increasing, but this observation may reflect improved diagnostics
  • Risk factors include advanced age, hospitalization or receipt of healthcare services, use of antibiotics, gastric acid suppressants or immunosuppressive agents, and CD4+ cell count ≤ 50 cells/mm3[IDSA/SHEA CDI; Haines 2013]

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