Endocrine Disorders: Evaluation and Management

  • Author: Todd T. Brown, MD (More Info)
  • Editors in Chief: Daniel R. Kuritzkes, MD; Joseph J. Eron, Jr., MD
  • Last Reviewed: 11/14/16 (What's New)


  • TZDs are considered second-line or third-line initial therapy for diabetes mellitus in the general population
  • TZDs are associated with increased risk of congestive heart failure and are contraindicated in patients with a history of congestive heart failure and should be used with caution in those with cardiac risk factors
  • Periodic monitoring of liver enzymes is also recommended due to risk of hepatotoxicity

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