Special Considerations and Clinical Management of HIV-Infected Drug Users

  • Author: Frederick L. Altice, MD (More Info)
  • Editors in Chief: Daniel R. Kuritzkes, MD; Joseph J. Eron, Jr., MD
  • Last Reviewed: 4/1/16 (What's New)


  • Club drugs include amphetamines such as methamphetamine, 3,4 methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (commonly known as Ecstasy), gamma hydroxybutyrate, and ketamine
  • Club drugs are generally ingested orally, nasally, or rectally, with the exception of methamphetamine, which may be injected[WHO Dependence 2006]
  • Prevalence of club-drug use among MSM is high[Finlayson 2011] and has been associated with increased HIV risk–taking behaviors[Colfax 2006; Boone 2013]
  • Methamphetamine
      3,4 Methylenedioxy-Methamphetamine (Ecstasy)
          Gamma Hydroxybutyrate

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