Management of Renal Disease

  • Author: Mohamed G. Atta, MD, MPH (More Info)
  • Editors in Chief: Daniel R. Kuritzkes, MD; Joseph J. Eron, Jr., MD
  • Last Reviewed: 3/14/17 (What's New)


  • Ability of cystatin C to act as a true marker of kidney function limited by the effects of processes other than kidney function, such as inflammation and apoptosis
  • Its use among persons with HIV infection, particularly those with high HIV-1 RNA levels, is questionable and is not recommended[Bhasin 2013]
    • Combined eGFR creatinine–cystatin C equation is most accurate in HIV-positive patients

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