Non–AIDS-Defining Cancers

  • Authors: David Aboulafia, MD; Liron Pantanowitz, MD (More Info)
  • Editors in Chief: Daniel R. Kuritzkes, MD; Joseph J. Eron, Jr., MD
  • Last Reviewed: 12/12/16 (What's New)


  • Current NCCN guidelines emphasize importance of smoking as risk factor for anal carcinoma[NCCN Anal] with risk increased ~ 8 times for smokers versus nonsmokers[Etienney 2008]
  • Quadrivalent and 9-valent HPV vaccine indicated for prevention of anal cancer and associated precancerous lesions due to HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18 (also 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58 for 9-valent vaccine) in people aged 9-26 years[FDA 2010a; FDA 2014]
  • AIN may be treated with topical agents and/or surgery[Abbasakoor 2005; Stier 2013] or infrared coagulation for discrete high-grade anal-canal lesions[Stier 2008]

Action required