Management of IRIS

  • Authors: Irini Sereti, MD, MHS; Philip Grant, MD (More Info)
  • Editors in Chief: Daniel R. Kuritzkes, MD; Joseph J. Eron, Jr., MD
  • Last Reviewed: 4/1/16 (What's New)


  • IRIS is categorized as paradoxical IRIS or unmasking IRIS by whether the pathogen involved in the reaction has been diagnosed at the time of ART initiation
  • Immune features of paradoxical IRIS include monocyte/macrophage activation and T-cell reconstitution[Grant 2012; Pean 2012; Barber 2010; Barber 2012; Andrade 2013]
  • Unmasking IRIS is characterized by cytokine production similar to that seen in patients with active opportunistic infections[Haddow 2009; Porter 2010]

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