Agents Used in Antiretroviral Therapy

  • Authors: Philip Grant, MD (More Info)
  • Editors in Chief: Daniel R. Kuritzkes, MD; Joseph J. Eron, Jr., MD
  • Last Reviewed: 10/1/18 (What's New)

Introduction

  • Potent combination antiretroviral therapy has changed the prognosis for patients with HIV infection
  • This module describes the HIV life cycle, currently available antiretroviral agents, and agents in phase III clinical trials
  • Some agents are available separately (Table 1) or as part of coformulations (Table 2)

Potent combination antiretroviral therapy has dramatically changed the prognosis for patients with HIV infection, allowing the infection to be effectively managed with medication. This module provides an overview of the HIV viral life cycle, the currently available antiretroviral agents, the use of antiretroviral agents in combination therapy, and medications currently being investigated in phase III trials. Antiretroviral medications currently approved by the FDA for the treatment of patients with HIV and those currently in phase III clinical trials are listed in Table 1, and those currently available as coformulations are itemized in Table 2. With their improved tolerability, current US guidelines favor integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) for first-line therapy in combination with NRTIs; European guidelines still offer a range of regimens—including those with NNRTIs and boosted PIs—among their recommended regimens (see Tables 3 and 4 for Current Antiretroviral Treatment Guidelines).

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