Parasitic Infections in HIV-Infected Patients

  • Authors: José M. Miró, MD, PhD; Miriam J. Álvarez-Martínez, MD, PhD (More Info)
  • Editors in Chief: Joseph J. Eron, Jr., MD; Daniel R. Kuritzkes, MD
  • Last Reviewed: 10/20/21 (What's New)


  • Guidelines on opportunistic infections recommend that patients with visceral leishmaniasis and a CD4+ cell count < 200 cells/mm3 should receive an effective antileishmanial drug every 2-4 weeks (Table 12) (Management Guidelines)[CDC OI] (Management Guidelines)[EACS]
  • Patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis who experience multiple relapses should also receive secondary prophylaxis
  • No formal recommendations for discontinuation of secondary prophylaxis, although guidelines note that withdrawal may be considered in patients whose CD4+ cell count increases to > 200 to 350 cells/mm3 for > 3-6 months following initiation of ART and who are negative for urinary Leishmania antigen and blood PCR (Table 13)[CDC OI; GESIDA OI]

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