Other Viruses That Affect the Liver

  • Authors: Lisa VanWagner, MD, MSc, FAST (More Info)
  • Editor In Chief: Stefan Zeuzem, MD
  • Last Reviewed: 9/4/18 (What's New)


  • Hepatic involvement in congenital rubella syndrome is characterized by cholestasis with elevated bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase levels and relatively normal aminotransferase levels[Esterly 1967; Stern 1966]
  • Liver involvement in adult rubella is relatively uncommon and rarely is cholestatic; more commonly, aminotransferase levels and lactate dehydrogenase are elevated[Tameda 1993]
  • Rubella is primarily diagnosed by the presence of IgG and IgM antibodies but high rubella antibody titers can occur in the setting of unrelated forms of liver disease, for unexplained reasons[Triger 1974]

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