Virology and Immunology of Hepatitis Viruses

  • Authors: Esperance Anne Kreek Schaefer, MD, MPH; Raymond T. Chung, MD (More Info)
  • Editor In Chief: Stefan Zeuzem, MD
  • Last Reviewed: 7/10/18 (What's New)


    Epidemiology and Natural History
    • HBV is the most common hepatitis virus and one of the most common infections worldwide
      • Chronic HBV infection is found in an estimated 257 million individuals[WHO 2017]
    • Major sources of transmission are perinatal, close contact with infected individuals during childhood, sexual contact, and injection drug use
    The Dane Particle and Viral Replication
          Oncogenesis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Hepatitis B Virus Infection
            Therapeutic Targets
              Mechanisms of Resistance

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