Virology and Immunology of Hepatitis Viruses

  • Authors: Esperance Anne Kreek Schaefer, MD, MPH; Raymond T. Chung, MD (More Info)
  • Editor In Chief: Stefan Zeuzem, MD
  • Last Reviewed: 7/10/18 (What's New)


  • HBV infection in the immunocompetent adult most commonly results in viral clearance that requires a vigorous adaptive immune response
    • HBV itself does not exert a cytopathic effect,[Guidotti 1999] and during early infection, the virus evades host innate immune recognition[Wieland 2004]
  • In chronic hepatitis B, HBV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses are diminished and thought to be functionally impaired[Boonstra 2008]

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